Stonebreaker Language/Phrasal Verbs

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To Go

The verb idna is used to mean 'to go' and has many derivatives. Idna is related to the type II noun Idam - travel - and Idart - a journey. Below are the main derivatives. These can allow an amazing array of subtle distinctions to be made.

Head Hand Adjective Infinitive Actor
Idam - travel Idart - a journey Ida - travelling Idna - to go Idnam - traveller
Pedidam - walking Pedidart - a walk Pedida - walking Pedidna - to walk Pedidnam - pedestrian, walker
Snellidam - fast travel Snellidart - a fast journey Snellida - going quickly Snellidna - to go fast Snellidnam - racer
Pekidam - (small) travel Pekidart - a trip Pekida - tripping Pekidna - to go a short way Pekidnam - tripper
Utidam - departure Utidart - a journey out, a sortie Utida - going out Utidna - to go out Utidnam - embarker
Agidam - overtaking Agidart - a passing (of another traveller) Agida - overtaking Agidna - to overtake, go past Agidnam - overtaker
Elidam - Passing by Elidart - a journey past something Elida - passing by Elidna - to pass by, go past Elidnam - passer by
Imidam - entrance (from outside) Imidart - an entrance Imida - entering Imidna - to go in, enter Imidnam - person going in
Adidam - ascent Adidart - a climb, an ascent Adida - climbing, ascending Adidna - to go up, ascend, climb Adidnam - climber
Alidam - descent Alidart - a descent, climb down Alida - descending Alidna - to go down, descend, climb down Alidnam - descender (see notes)
Podidam - follow-ship, loyalty Podidart - a position behind a leader Podida - following Podidna - to follow, go behind someone Podidnam - follower
Preidam - leadership Preidart - the lead Preida - leading Preidna - to lead, go before Preidnam - leader
Altidam - precedence Altidart - a precedent Altida - preceding Altidna - to go before (in time), precede Altidnam - forebear
Otidam - penetration, passage Otidart - a breakthrough, passing through Otida - passing through, penetrating Otidna - to go through, penetrate Otidnam - penetrator
Dessidam - subversion (see notes) Dessidart - a underpass, tunnel Dessida - going under, tunnelling Dessidna - to go under, tunnel Dessidnam - tunneller (see notes)
Sulidam - juxtaposition Sulidart - a mount Sulida - mounting Sulidna - to get onto, mount Sulidnam - horseman (lit 'mounter')
Beridam - companionship (when travelling) Beridart - a journey made in company, expedition Berida - accompanying Beridna - to go beside, accompany Beridnam - travelling companion
Kumidam - setting out together Kumidart - a joint exit Kumida - leaving together Kumidna - to go (leave) with Kumidnam - companion when leaving
Veridam - Approach (way, method) Veridart - an approach (physically) Verida - approaching, going towards Veridna - to go towards, approach Veridnam - approaching person
Averidam - retreat Averidart - a retreat, flight Averida - going away, fleeing Averidna - to go away from, flee Averidnam - retreater, fleer
Rondidam - circumvention (avoidance) Rondidart - a round trip Rondida - circling Rondidna - to go around Rondidnam - someone who avoids problems - a strategist
Anidam - revisitation Anidart - a return trip Anida - returning Anidna - to go again, return to Anidnam - returner


Head Nouns

The Head nouns are difficult to translate exactly into English - they express the concepts associated with the verb, and sometimes need whole phrases to describe them in English and other modern languages. In some cases, this is relatively well understood to the English speaker - 'Leadership' for example, expresses the concept of leading. We can also understand the corresponding quality of 'Followship' although we have no single word to describe this. The Stonebreaker word Dessidam is even harder to translate. It is the concept of going under something. When a Stonebreaker meets an underground obstacle(for example a seam of hard rock that is difficult to tunnel through) he has two options: to go round Rondidna or to go below Dessidna. Going below carries more risks and requires a more carefully thought-out approach, but is usually the most efficient solution. This approach of carefully weighing the risks, working out an elegant and efficient way forward is expressed in the term Dessidam - the concept of going under a problem.

Different verbs can convey different subtleties in the language. So while Beridam conveys the idea of 'companionship while travelling' this is different from the concept of companionship in the sense of 'being with'. For this, the Stonebreakers use the verb Kumeina - to be with. This gives the Head noun Kumejam - 'being with'. Similarly, Kumvenna - to come together gives Kumvenam - companionship in gathering together - a sort of 'solidarity'. This ability to create concepts from actions or things makes Stonebreaker a language with which one can express extremely subtle thoughts and ideas.

Roles or Actors

Some of these equate easily to the corresponding English expressions. A leader is one who goes before (in space) - Preidnam. However, some people go before in time, not in space - these are Altidnameth or 'forebears - previous generations. Other roles that have special significance are:

  • Alidnam (descender) - this person leads an exploration of undiscovered tunnels underground - this needs particular skills and courage. Deciding who will be the Alidnam is an important step in any underground exploration.
  • Dessidnam (tunneller) - this person is the engineer in the mining squad. He or she works out the best way to tunnel through the rock and gives the orders to the diggers. This is a highly skilled job and requires expertise in geology, maths, physics and how to resolve forces.
  • Otidnam (penetrator) - this is a particularly powerfully built and fearless Stonebreaker, who is called on to break through rock walls underground, for example when breaking into an existing chamber. It requires strength and ability to move out of danger quickly!

Subtle Distinctions

At first glance, Agidna and Elidna seem to amount to the same - 'to go past', 'to go by'. The first relates to someone passing someone else while moving; the second, passing a stationery person or object. Arka agideloo Garwin sul Vigom means 'Arka passed Garwin on the road' while Arka elideloo Garwin Barldomom is 'Arka passed Garwin by (outside) the Tavern'. In the second case, Garwin was standing outside the tavern; in the first, he was going along the same road, and in the same direction.

The difference between Beridna and Kumidna can be best shown by example. Arka berid Garwinom means 'Arka goes (along) with Garwin'. Arka kumid Garwinom means 'Arka goes (leaves) with Garwin. In the first case, Arka and Garwin are going somewhere together; in the second they just leave at the same time. Similarly, Voyelõ Arka en Garwin feknam Beridart means 'I saw Arka and Garwin making a journey together', while Voyelõ Arka en Garwin feknam Kumidart means 'I saw Arka and Garwin making an exit together'. Arka ideloo Akkaiol. Garwin eloo Kumidnam - 'Arka went to Akkaio. Garwin left with her (literally was her 'leaving-companion'). We don't know if they continued their journey together - in this case Garwin would have been Beridnam - a travelling companion. Beridam ei Sekorirt - 'travelling together is safe' ('a safe thing'). Kumidam ei Nagarart - 'leaving together is bad ('a bad thing').

Note that Anidna means to to return to and not from. This is an important distinction. Arka anid Akkaiol is 'Arka returns (goes back) to Akkaio'. Arka anven Domol is 'Arka returns home' or 'comes again to home'. Both are quite different from the concept of returning an object. This is expressed by the verb adonna. Arka adon Ekk Harnquistol is 'Arka returns the axe to Harnquist'.