Stonebreaker Language/Phrasal Verbs
The verb idna is used to mean 'to go' and has many derivatives. Idna is related to the type II noun Idam - travel - and Idart - a journey. Below are the main derivatives. These can allow an amazing array of subtle distinctions to be made.
|Idam - travel||Idart - a journey||Ida - travelling||Idna - to go||Idnam - traveller|
|Pedidam - walking||Pedidart - a walk||Pedida - walking||Pedidna - to walk||Pedidnam - pedestrian, walker|
|Snellidam - fast travel||Snellidart - a fast journey||Snellida - going quickly||Snellidna - to go fast||Snellidnam - racer|
|Pekidam - (small) travel||Pekidart - a trip||Pekida - tripping||Pekidna - to go a short way||Pekidnam - tripper|
|Utidam - departure||Utidart - a journey out, a sortie||Utida - going out||Utidna - to go out||Utidnam - embarker|
|Agidam - overtaking||Agidart - a passing (of another traveller)||Agida - overtaking||Agidna - to overtake, go past||Agidnam - overtaker|
|Elidam - Passing by||Elidart - a journey past something||Elida - passing by||Elidna - to pass by, go past||Elidnam - passer by|
|Imidam - entrance (from outside)||Imidart - an entrance||Imida - entering||Imidna - to go in, enter||Imidnam - person going in|
|Adidam - ascent||Adidart - a climb, an ascent||Adida - climbing, ascending||Adidna - to go up, ascend, climb||Adidnam - climber|
|Alidam - descent||Alidart - a descent, climb down||Alida - descending||Alidna - to go down, descend, climb down||Alidnam - descender (see notes)|
|Podidam - follow-ship, loyalty||Podidart - a position behind a leader||Podida - following||Podidna - to follow, go behind someone||Podidnam - follower|
|Preidam - leadership||Preidart - the lead||Preida - leading||Preidna - to lead, go before||Preidnam - leader|
|Altidam - precedence||Altidart - a precedent||Altida - preceding||Altidna - to go before (in time), precede||Altidnam - forebear|
|Otidam - penetration, passage||Otidart - a breakthrough, passing through||Otida - passing through, penetrating||Otidna - to go through, penetrate||Otidnam - penetrator|
|Dessidam - subversion (see notes)||Dessidart - a underpass, tunnel||Dessida - going under, tunnelling||Dessidna - to go under, tunnel||Dessidnam - tunneller (see notes)|
|Sulidam - juxtaposition||Sulidart - a mount||Sulida - mounting||Sulidna - to get onto, mount||Sulidnam - horseman (lit 'mounter')|
|Beridam - companionship (when travelling)||Beridart - a journey made in company, expedition||Berida - accompanying||Beridna - to go beside, accompany||Beridnam - travelling companion|
|Kumidam - setting out together||Kumidart - a joint exit||Kumida - leaving together||Kumidna - to go (leave) with||Kumidnam - companion when leaving|
|Veridam - Approach (way, method)||Veridart - an approach (physically)||Verida - approaching, going towards||Veridna - to go towards, approach||Veridnam - approaching person|
|Averidam - retreat||Averidart - a retreat, flight||Averida - going away, fleeing||Averidna - to go away from, flee||Averidnam - retreater, fleer|
|Rondidam - circumvention (avoidance)||Rondidart - a round trip||Rondida - circling||Rondidna - to go around||Rondidnam - someone who avoids problems - a strategist|
|Anidam - revisitation||Anidart - a return trip||Anida - returning||Anidna - to go again, return to||Anidnam - returner|
The Head nouns are difficult to translate exactly into English - they express the concepts associated with the verb, and sometimes need whole phrases to describe them in English and other modern languages. In some cases, this is relatively well understood to the English speaker - 'Leadership' for example, expresses the concept of leading. We can also understand the corresponding quality of 'Followship' although we have no single word to describe this. The Stonebreaker word Dessidam is even harder to translate. It is the concept of going under something. When a Stonebreaker meets an underground obstacle(for example a seam of hard rock that is difficult to tunnel through) he has two options: to go round Rondidna or to go below Dessidna. Going below carries more risks and requires a more carefully thought-out approach, but is usually the most efficient solution. This approach of carefully weighing the risks, working out an elegant and efficient way forward is expressed in the term Dessidam - the concept of going under a problem.
Different verbs can convey different subtleties in the language. So while Beridam conveys the idea of 'companionship while travelling' this is different from the concept of companionship in the sense of 'being with'. For this, the Stonebreakers use the verb Kumeina - to be with. This gives the Head noun Kumejam - 'being with'. Similarly, Kumvenna - to come together gives Kumvenam - companionship in gathering together - a sort of 'solidarity'. This ability to create concepts from actions or things makes Stonebreaker a language with which one can express extremely subtle thoughts and ideas.
Roles or Actors
Some of these equate easily to the corresponding English expressions. A leader is one who goes before (in space) - Preidnam. However, some people go before in time, not in space - these are Altidnameth or 'forebears - previous generations. Other roles that have special significance are:
- Alidnam (descender) - this person leads an exploration of undiscovered tunnels underground - this needs particular skills and courage. Deciding who will be the Alidnam is an important step in any underground exploration.
- Dessidnam (tunneller) - this person is the engineer in the mining squad. He or she works out the best way to tunnel through the rock and gives the orders to the diggers. This is a highly skilled job and requires expertise in geology, maths, physics and how to resolve forces.
- Otidnam (penetrator) - this is a particularly powerfully built and fearless Stonebreaker, who is called on to break through rock walls underground, for example when breaking into an existing chamber. It requires strength and ability to move out of danger quickly!
At first glance, Agidna and Elidna seem to amount to the same - 'to go past', 'to go by'. The first relates to someone passing someone else while moving; the second, passing a stationery person or object. Arka agideloo Garwin sul Vigom means 'Arka passed Garwin on the road' while Arka elideloo Garwin Barldomom is 'Arka passed Garwin by (outside) the Tavern'. In the second case, Garwin was standing outside the tavern; in the first, he was going along the same road, and in the same direction.
The difference between Beridna and Kumidna can be best shown by example. Arka berid Garwinom means 'Arka goes (along) with Garwin'. Arka kumid Garwinom means 'Arka goes (leaves) with Garwin. In the first case, Arka and Garwin are going somewhere together; in the second they just leave at the same time. Similarly, Voyelõ Arka en Garwin feknam Beridart means 'I saw Arka and Garwin making a journey together', while Voyelõ Arka en Garwin feknam Kumidart means 'I saw Arka and Garwin making an exit together'. Arka ideloo Akkaiol. Garwin eloo Kumidnam - 'Arka went to Akkaio. Garwin left with her (literally was her 'leaving-companion'). We don't know if they continued their journey together - in this case Garwin would have been Beridnam - a travelling companion. Beridam ei Sekorirt - 'travelling together is safe' ('a safe thing'). Kumidam ei Nagarart - 'leaving together is bad ('a bad thing').
Note that Anidna means to to return to and not from. This is an important distinction. Arka anid Akkaiol is 'Arka returns (goes back) to Akkaio'. Arka anven Domol is 'Arka returns home' or 'comes again to home'. Both are quite different from the concept of returning an object. This is expressed by the verb adonna. Arka adon Ekk Harnquistol is 'Arka returns the axe to Harnquist'.